Wednesday, 27 November 2013

Transformers - voltage & coil ratios.

Aim

To investigate how the ratio of number of turns on the primary and secondary coils affects the potential difference across them.

Equipment

laminated iron C cores and holder
Insulated wire for winding
Power supply (12V a.c.)
Digital Multimeter or a.c. voltmeter
Connecting leads & crocodile clips

Method

Wind each side of the C core with 50 turns of wire.
Connect one side to the a.c. power supply set to 6V - this is the primary coil.
Connect the other side to the multimeter (set to measure a.c. voltage) or the a.c. voltmeter - this is the secondary coil.
Join the C cores using the holder.
Switch on the power supply and record the reading on the meter, then turn off the power supply again. Repeat the reading twice more.

On the side connected to the multimeter UNWIND 5 turns.
Take another three readings for the voltage.
Continue unwinding and taking readings until you have only 5 coils on the secondary side of the transformer.

Risk assessment

Wires may become hot if current is allowed to flow for too long due to low resistance so the power supply should not be left on. If it is left on too long wires should be allowed to cool after the power is shut off before moving the equipment.

There is a risk of electric shock with this experiment.
It is very important to start with the maximum number of turns on the secondary and then unwind it. This prevents any stepping up of the voltage which could cause sparking.
The current will increase as the voltage is stepped down so all changes should be made to the secondary coil without the power being turned on.
The equipment should not be touched when turned on.
Anyone with a heart condition or who has a pacemaker should be especially careful.